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Kosmatka, Beatrix Kerkhoff, and William C. KEYWORDS: admixtures, aggregates, air-entrained concrete, batching, cement, cold weather, curing, durability, fibers, finishing, high-performance concrete, hot weather, mixing, mixing water, mixture proportioning, placing, portland cement concrete, properties, special concrete, standards, supplementary cementing materials, tests, and volume changes.
All concrete ingredients cementing materials, water, aggregates, admixtures, and fibers are reviewed for their optimal use in designing and proportioning concrete mixtures. The use of concrete from design to batching, mixing, transporting, placing, consolidating, finishing, and curing is addressed. Special concretes, including high-performance concretes, are also reviewed. The authors of this engineering bulletin are: Steven H.
Panarese, former Manager, Construction Information Services, PCA Cover photos show ready mixed concrete being elevated by bucket and crane to the 39th floor of a high-rise building in Chicago. Portland Cement Association All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in a review written for inclusion in a magazine or newspaper. ISBN pbk. Portland cement. Kerkhoff, Beatrix.
Panarese, William C. K '. Wear waterproof gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, full-length trousers, and proper eye protection when working with these materials. If you have to stand in wet concrete, use waterproof boots that are high enough to keep concrete from flowing into them. Wash wet concrete, mortar, cement, or cement mixtures from your skin immediately. Flush eyes with clean water immediately after contact. Indirect contact through clothing can be as serious as direct contact, so promptly rinse out wet concrete, mortar, cement, or cement mixtures from clothing.
Seek immediate medical attention if you have persistent or severe discomfort. Table of Contents Preface and Acknowledgements. Chapter 5 Aggregates for Concrete. Chapter 4 Mixing Water for Concrete. Chapter 6 Admixtures for Concrete. Contents, continued Pumping Aids.
Absolute Volume Method Metric. Chapter 7 Fibers. Chapter 8 Air-Entrained Concrete. Contents, continued Air Content. Chapter 12 Curing Concrete. Chapter 11 Placing and Finishing Concrete. Contents, continued Internal Moist Curing. Chapter 13 Hot-Weather Concreting. Chapter 14 Cold-Weather Concreting. Chapter 16 Control Tests for Concrete. Chapter 15 Volume Changes of Concrete. Contents, continued Volume and Length Change. Chapter 17 High-Performance Concrete. Chapter 18 Special Types of Concrete.
Preface and Acknowledgements Concretes versatility, durability, and economy have made it the worlds most used construction material. The United States uses about million cubic meters million cubic yards of ready mixed concrete each year.
It is used in highways, streets, parking lots, parking garages, bridges, high-rise buildings, dams, homes, floors, sidewalks, driveways, and numerous other applications. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures has been the cement and concrete industrys primary reference on concrete technology for over 75 years.
Since the first edition was published in the early s, the U. This fully revised 14th edition was written to provide a concise, current reference on concrete, including the many advances that occurred since the last edition was published in The text is backed by over 85 years of research by the Portland Cement Association.
New chapters on supplementary cementing materials, fibers, and high-performance concrete have also been added. The authors wish to acknowledge contributions made by many individuals and organizations who provided valuable assistance in the writing and publishing of the 14th edition. Cheryl Taylor, Consultant, for months of desktop layout. Bickley Associates, Ltd. Neal, Lehigh Portland Cement Co. Barger, Ash Grove Cement Co. Grace Co. Stanke, Zenith Tech, Inc. The authors have tried to make this edition of Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures a concise and current reference on concrete technology.
Readers are encouraged to submit comments to improve future printings and editions of this book. Fundamentals of Concrete Concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates and paste. The paste, comprised of portland cement and water, binds the aggregates usually sand and gravel or crushed stone into a rocklike mass as the paste hardens because of the chemical reaction of the cement and water Fig.
Supplementary cementitious materials and chemical admixtures may also be included in the paste. Fine aggregates consist of natural or manufactured sand with particle sizes ranging up to 9.
The maximum size of coarse aggregate is typically 19 mm or 25 mm 34 in. An intermediate-sized aggregate, around 9. Range in proportions of materials used in concrete, by absolute volume. Bars 1 and 3 represent rich mixes with small size aggregates.
Bars 2 and 4 represent lean mixes with large size aggregates. Concrete components: cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate, are combined to form concrete. The term portland cement pertains to a calcium silicate hydraulic cement produced by heating materials containing calcium, silicon, aluminum, and iron. The term cement used throughout the text pertains to portland cement or blended hydraulic cement unless otherwise stated. The term cementitious materials means portland or blended cement, used with or without supplementary cementitious materials.
The paste is composed of cementitious materials, water, and entrapped air or purposely entrained air. Aggregates should consist of particles with adequate strength and resistance to exposure conditions and should not contain materials that will cause deterioration of the concrete. A continuous gradation of aggregate particle sizes is desirable for efficient use of the paste.
Throughout this text, it will be assumed that suitable aggregates are being used, except where otherwise noted. The quality of the concrete depends upon the quality of the paste and aggregate, and the bond between the two. In properly made concrete, each and every particle of aggregate is completely coated with paste and all of the spaces between aggregate particles are completely filled with paste, as illustrated in Fig.
Cross section of hardened concrete made with left rounded siliceous gravel and right crushed limestone. Cementand-water paste completely coats each aggregate particle and fills all spaces between particles.
For any particular set of materials and conditions of curing, the quality of hardened concrete is strongly influenced by the amount of water used in relation to the amount of cement Fig. Unnecessarily high water contents dilute the cement paste the glue of concrete. Following are some advantages of reducing water content: Increased compressive and flexural strength Lower permeability, thus lower absorption and increased watertightness Increased resistance to weathering Better bond between concrete and reinforcement Reduced drying shrinkage and cracking Less volume change from wetting and drying The less water used, the better the quality of the concreteprovided the mixture can be consolidated properly.
Smaller amounts of mixing water result in stiffer mixtures; but with vibration, stiffer mixtures can be easily placed. Thus, consolidation by vibration permits improvement in the quality of concrete. The freshly mixed plastic and hardened properties of concrete may be changed by adding chemical admixtures to the concrete, usually in liquid form, during batching.
Chemical admixtures are commonly used to 1 adjust setting time or hardening, 2 reduce water demand, 3 increase workability, 4 intentionally entrain air, and 5 adjust other fresh or hardened concrete properties. After completion of proper proportioning, batching, mixing, placing, consolidating, finishing, and curing, concrete hardens into a strong, noncombustible, durable, abrasion-resistant, and watertight building material that requires little or no maintenance.
Furthermore, concrete is an excellent building material because it can be formed into a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures for use in an unlimited number of applications. A very wet concrete mixture can be molded in the sense that it can be cast in a mold, but this is not within the definition of plasticthat which is pliable and capable of being molded or shaped like a lump of modeling clay. In a plastic concrete mixture all grains of sand and pieces of gravel or stone are encased and held in suspension.
The ingredients are not apt to segregate during transport; and when the concrete hardens, it becomes a homogeneous mixture of all the components. During placing, concrete of plastic consistency does not crumble but flows sluggishly without segregation. In construction practice, thin concrete members and heavily reinforced concrete members require workable, but never soupy, mixes for ease of placement.
A plastic mixture is required for strength and for maintaining homogeneity during handling and placement. While a plastic mixture is suitable for most concrete work, plasticizing admixtures may be used to make concrete more flowable in thin or heavily reinforced concrete members. Ten cement-paste cylinders with water-cement ratios from 0. The band indicates that each cylinder contains the same amount of cement.
Increased water dilutes the effect of the cement paste, increasing volume, reducing density, and lowering strength. Mixing In Fig. To ensure that they are combined into a homogeneous mixture requires effort and care. The sequence of charging ingredients into a concrete mixer can play an important part in uniformity of the finished product.