The concise st martins guide to writing 7th edition
We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you! Published by Josie Orgill Modified over 5 years ago. How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do!
Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Preview Question 1: Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense?
Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.
Anagram How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams? But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion. Question: What are the main components of the scientific attitude? The three attitudes help make modern science possible. When put to the test, can its predictions be confirmed? Preview Question 2: What are the three main components of scientific attitude? It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
How do theories advance psychological science? Preview Question 3: How do theories advance psychological science? Theory A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.
For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. Hypothesis A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis. By using individual case studies, surveys among random samples of a population, and naturalistic observations.
The starting point of any science is description. Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
Preview Question 4: How do psychologists observe and describe behavior? Wording Effects Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them. Usually a very efficient and inexpensive method.
What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause-effect explanation? Indicates strength of relationship 0. Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. Indicates direction of relationship positive or negative.
The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. There is a moderate positive correlation of. The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption. Michael Newman Jr. Order in Random Events Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns.
Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,, Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research.
Experiments isolate causes and their effects. Preview Question 7: How do experiments, powered by random assignment, clarify cause and effect? Experiments 1 manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under 2 control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.
In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable. Henderson comes in, everybody play dead. Composition of ethnicity in urban locales. Apply simple statistical reasoning in everyday life to think smarter! Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions.
Preview Question 8: How can we describe data with measures of central tendency and variation? Mean: The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together.
Median: The middle score in a rank-ordered distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. Most scores fall near the mean. Regression Toward the Mean: the tendency for extremes of unusual scores or events to regress toward the average. Representative samples are better than biased samples.
Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. More cases are better than fewer cases. Preview Question 9: What principles can guide our making generalizations from samples and deciding whether differences are significant? Making Inferences When is a Difference Significant? When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance.
It is probably not due to chance variation. For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.
Preview Question Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? FAQ Q2. Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same.
Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human. Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals? Ans: Studying animals gives us the understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans. From animal studies, we have gained insights to devastating and fatal diseases.
All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals. Preview Question Why do psychologists study animals, and is it ethical to experiment on animals? Is it ethical to experiment on people? FAQ Q4. Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out. Preview Question Is it ethical to experiment on people?
Is psychology free of value judgments? FAQ Q5. Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments. Preview Question Is psychology free of value judgments? Is psychology potentially dangerous?