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Part—I 20 Marks Answer all questions. Question 1. The party was led by Congress President K. Kamraj and included many powerful leaders like Atulya Ghosh, S.
Patil, N. Sanjeeva Reddy. It was ordered by the then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, to flush out the militant members of the Khalistan who were hidden inside the holy Golden Temple in Amritsar. These were first formally enunciated in the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse between the Tibet region of China and India. Kennedy and L. Johnson and Roosevelt were the two democrat Presidents who were sympathetic to the demands of black Americans. Israel was immediately attacked by neighboring Arab states.
Question 2. Question 3. It was led by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. When Nehru passed away, K. Kamraj, the President of the Congress party consulted party leaders, members of the syndicate and members of the Parliament.
The members of the syndicate convinced the leaders of the Congress party to come in favour of Lai Bahadur Shastri. He was known for his simplicity and his commitment towards his principles. Thus, Lai Bahdur Shastri owed his position to the support he received from the Syndicate. Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for the coming Presidential elections. Indira Gandhi retaliated by encouraging the then Vice-President V. Giri to file his nomination as an independent candidate.
After silently supporting V. Giri won the election and the defeat of the official Congress candidate formalized the split in the party. By November , the Congress group led by the Syndicate came to be known as the Congress Organisation and the group led by Indira Gandhi came to be known as the — Congress Requisitionists.
Question 4. On 18th May , the Siliguri Kishan Sabha, of which Jangal was the president, declared their support for the movement initiated by Kanu Sanyal, and their readiness to adopt armed struggle to redistribute land to the landless. On 24th May, when a police team arrived to arrest the peasant leaders, it was ambushed by a group of tribals led by Jangal Santhal, and a police inspector was killed.
This event encouraged many Santhal tribals and other poor people to join the movement and to start attacking local landlords. But lately it seems that the government is keener to follow peaceful strategy of development as a tool to dissuade potential recruits from joining armed struggle in Naxal hit areas.
Modernisation of Armed Forces : The Government closely monitors the situation and provides supplements and further coordinates their efforts in several ways. Moreover the government provided helicopters for anti-Naxal operations, assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence and further development of the Central Police Organisations and the Bureau of Police Research and Development.
Scheme of Special Infrastructure : To cater to the critical infrastructure gaps, that cannot be covered under the existing schemes. The aim of this initiative was to provide public infrastructure and services in contiguous districts. This was a successful scheme which aimed at building bridges between the local population and the security forces. Question 5. The other Sikhs did not support the Akali demand.
The Akhalis failed to win over the support of the Sikh President of India. They could not win over the Sikh Chief Minister of the state of Punjab to their side. In one such operation, Operation Blue Star in June Indian forces entered the Holy Golden Temple to overpower the militants who took shelter there.
Death of Bhindranwale and Amrik Singh. The operation led to loss of lives on both sides. The Sikhs started widespread criticism of the Indian government. In the meantime, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated. Longowal was assassinated. It was also decided that some Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab would be transferred to Haryana. Operation Black Thunder was launched by the Central Government inl to flush out remaining militants in a more organised way.
Question 6. Discuss the causes and consequences of the Indio-Pak war of Causes: Partition of India : The partition of India even led to dispute over sharing of river waters. In India stopped the water of these rivers. Dispute over Border : The boundary commission tried to settle the border dispute.
A dispute ensued over Rann of Kutch in Pakistan attacked near Kutch border. India referred the dispute to UN. On 5th August, Pakistan. Pakistan faced a shameful defeat in the war. Tashkent Declaration : War ended in a United Nations mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Attitude of Pakistan : At the conclusion of the War, many Pakistanis considered the performance of their military to be positive.
Section—B Answer any two questions. Question 7. It showed an unflagging interest in European diplomacy. The sole ambition of Italy was to restrict the re-birth of German military power. As a matter of fact, Italy formed nexus with other European powers. Italy supported the Dollfuss government in Austria in when Austrian Nazis tried to crush the government with the clandestine German assistance.
Italy negotiated the Stresa front that was formed in with the two democratic western powers, France and Britain. Britain concluded a naval agreement with Germany without the acknowledgement of France and Italy. In October, , Italy invaded Abyssinia with the aim of forming a small African Empire, gaining prestige and trade.
By this time, Mussolini made Italy a super imperialist power. The main reason behind the invasion of Abyssinia was that he aimed to boost the popularity of the regime by providing an outlet for over-population in Italy. Abyssinia was the main target as it was the only independent country. At the same time, Abyssinian forces were poorly equipped and could not resist Italian attack. The League of Nations took punitive measures against the unjust invasion of Abyssinia.
However, the League could not maintain international collective security, which was one of the aspects of the League. Thus, the League failed to protect Abyssinia as Mussolini could not be deterred. The second Italo-Abyssinian war was also called the Rape of Ethiopia, which lasted seven months in It is often regarded as precursor to World War-II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League. Japan relied on the United States for eighty percent of its oil, and without US oil supplies its navy would be unable to function.
While attacking Pearl Harbour the Japanese hoped to cripple or destroy the US Pacific fleet so that the Japanese navy would have free reign in the Pacific and get the oil supply easily.
The United States also had an obvious interest in these natural resources, and in response to the Japanese aggression, the U.
Congress placed restrictions on doing business with Japan. This move was a threat to Japan, who wanted to expand in the Pacific. Military leaders and politicians saw a war between the U. Japan did just that. Events and Impacts : The American people were shocked, bewildered, surprised, and angered by the attack. In his address, Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war against Japan.
All previous domestic opposition to US entry into the war ceased. The United States was now immersed in a war that it would conduct simultaneously in Europe and the Pacific. Question 8. The factors that brought this about were complex and subjected to widely varying interpretation, but the basic fact remained a communist military triumph growing out of a profound and popularly based revolution.
He had little success in rallying Chinese nationalism to win an unpopular war against the Communists. Economic discontent in the cities led to thousands of labour strikes.
They demanded an end to the civil war and the creation of a government that included the Communists. The Nationalists responded with censorship, beatings, mass arrests and even assassinations. The Nationalist government seemed to care only for city business interests and rural landlords while ignoring the suffering of the peasants. The corrupt government administrators helped landlords take back their lands that the Communists had handed over to the peasants.
Thus, the disgruntled peasants started to support the claims of the Communists. Communist propaganda took full advantage of all the Nationalist failures.